This page outlines examples of how to complete various kinds of references using the Harvard Referencing method.

Quotations, paraphrases and summaries

To cite a quotation

Reproduce the text word-for-word and place quotation marks at the beginning and end of the quotation. The author, date and page number must be included.

"Australia is a settler society" (Hudson and Bolton 1997, p. 9).

To cite a paraphrase or a short summary of an author's words or ideas

Restate the original words/ideas in your own words. The author, date, and page number(s) must be included.

Wartime textile rationing was imposed through a coupon system, which meant garments now had two costs: their value in monetary units and in coupons (McKernan 1995, p. 152)

To reference the overall content of a work

You do not need to include page numbers because it is the entire work you are referring to:

Larsen and Greene (1989) studied the effects of pollution in three major citiies...

An author who attributes information to another source

In-text citations

You must acknowledge both sources in your text:

Graham Gibbs, in his 1981 study into student learning wrote that "because students are aware of their tutor's mastery of the subject matter, it is quite common for them to assume that their reader has no needs at all" (Gibbs 1981, p. 39, cited in Bowden & Marton 1998, p. 35).

List of References

Record the book that you actually sourced:

Bowden, J & Marton F 1998, The university of learning, Kogan Page, London. 

Multiple authors

One to three authors:

In-text citations

Include both names in the order in which they appear on the title page:

(Gerster & Basset 1987) or:

Gerster and Basset (1987) assert that...

List of References

Gerster, R & Basset, J 1991, Seizures of youth: the sixties and Australia, Hyland House, Melbourne.

More than three authors:

In-text citations

Use the surname of the first author and et al. ('and others') in the text:

Leeder et al. (1996, p. 78) argued ... or:

(Leeder et al. 1996) 

List of References

Don't use et al in the list of references. List all the authors in the order in which they appear on the title page.

Leeder, SR, Dobson, AJ, Gibbers, RW, Patel, NK, Matthews, PS, Williams DW & Mariot, DL 1996, The Australian film industry, Dominion Press, Adelaide.


A work reproduced in a publication—image, poem, painting, etc.

In-text citations

Refer to the work in the text, then include book author, date, and page number:

De Kooning's 1952 painting "Woman and Bicycle" (Hughes 1980, p. 295) is an example of ...'

List of References

List the publication containing the image:

Hughes, R 1980, The shock of the new: art and the century of change, British Broadcasting Corporation, London. 

More than one work by the same author

 In-text citations

Arrange citations in chronological order:

(Smith 1981, 1984, 1985)

List of References

Each source requires a separate reference list entry. 

Part of a publication contributed by someone other than the main author—a preface, introduction, foreword, etc.

In-text citations

Drabble (in Bronte 1978) suggests...

List of References

Provide the details of the publication to which the contribution was made:

Bronte, E 1978, Wuthering Heights and poems, H Osborne (ed.), Orion Publishing Group, London. Introduction by Margaret Drabble.

An author who published more than one work in the same year

In-text citations

Attach an a, b, c, d etc. after the year:

Dawkins (1972a, 1972 b) completed a number of studies on... 

List of References

Each source requires a separate reference list entry.

To refer to more than one work

In-text citations

Separate the references either with a semicolon or the word and

(Entwistle 1977; Haddon 1969) or:

Entwistle (1977) and Haddon (1969) both demonstrated...

List of References

Each source requires a separate reference list entry.

To refer to authors with the same family name who have published in the same year

In-text citations

Use their initials to indicate different people:

The theory was first developed early this century (Smith, A K 1979) but later many of its elements were refuted (Smith, J A 1979). 

List of References

Each source requires a separate reference list entry. 

Finding more information

The material in this guide is based on the 6th edition of the Government Style Manual:

Style Manual for Authors, Editors and Printers 2002, 6th edn, revised by Snooks & Co., AGPS, Canberra.

For more detailed information and examples, we recommend that you consult this source, especially Chapter 12 (pp. 187-232). Copies of this Style Manual are available for loan at UNSW Library

Many faculties and schools at UNSW have style guides indicating how referencing for assignments should be done, so if you're not sure, check with them about which method to use.

It is impossible to include every referencing format in this guide. If you need referencing information for a format not listed here, seek further assistance from:

  • your lecturer or tutor
  • a Harvard referencing website (try an internet search)
  • or a style manual. Style manuals for different citation systems are available in the UNSW Library.
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