Harvard Referencing - The 'In-text' System

How do I do it?

The Harvard System requires two elements: in-text citations throughout your assignment and a list of references at the end.

1. In-text citations

Include three pieces of information about a source within the text of your work:

  • the name of the author or authors
  • the year of publication
  • the page number (when the information/idea can be located on a particular page or when directly quoted).

Diagram of steps in in-text citation

2. References

At the end of your text, you must include a list of references, that is, a list of all the sources of information you have used to research your assignment.

Citing electronic or online sources

What are electronic sources?

An electronic source is any information source in digital format. The library subscribes to many electronic information resources in order to provide access for students. Electronic sources can include: full-text journals, newspapers, company information, e-books, dictionaries, encyclopaedias, economic data, digital images, industry profiles, market research, etc. 

Should I include extra information when I cite them?

Referencing electronic or online sources can be confusing—it's difficult to know which information to include or where to find it. As a rule, provide as much information as possible concerning authorship, location and availability.

Electronic or online sources require much of the same information as print sources (author, year of publication, title, publisher). However, in some cases extra information may be required:

  • the page, paragraph or section number—what you cite will depend on the information available as many electronic or online sources don’t have pages.
  • identify the format of the source accessed, for example, E-book, podcast etc.
  • provide an accurate access date for online sources, that is, identify when a source was viewed or downloaded.
  • provide the location of an online source, for example, a database or web address.

See next

How to cite different sources

Back to top