Citing broadcast and visual materials using APA Referencing

This page outlines how to use APA referencing style to cite broadcast and visual materials such as films, radio and television programs, music recordings, videos, podcasts and online images.

Motion picture

In-text citations

Name the title in the text and put the primary contributors as authors in the parenthetical citation:

The motion picture The Godfather (Ruddy & Coppola, 1972) examines themes of good and evil ...


For a motion picture:

  • list the primary contributors in the author position and identify their contributions between parentheses.
  • date, between parentheses.
  • title, in italics
  • format, between square brackets.
  • country of origin, followed by a colon
  • studio name.

Ruddy, A. S. (Producer), & Coppola, F. F. (Director). (1972). The Godfather [motion picture]. United States: Paramount.

Music recording

In-text citations

For music recordings, the text citation consists of the songwriter(s) and date, along with the track number (or side and band, for vinyl records):

Lehrer (1990, side 2, track 3) wrote parody of the official songs in use by the various branches of the United States military. 

If the copyright date and recording date are different, use both dates in the text citation:

Carter and Cash's version of “It ain't me, babe” (Dylan, 1964/2002, track 3) was also considered ...


The bibliographic details are the same as those required for films, videos, DVDs, television and radio programs:

  • Writer name and initials
  • copyright year
  • Title of song
  • [Recorded by artist name if different from writer].
  • On title of album, in italics
  • [format of recording]
  • location:
  • label
  • (date of recording if different from song copyright date).

Lehrer, T. (1959). It makes a fellow proud to be a soldier. On Evening Wasted with Tom Lehrer [vinyl record]. Los Angeles, CA: Warner Brothers.

Dylan, B. (1964). It ain't me, babe [Recorded by J. Cash and J. Carter]. On Orange Blossom Special [CD]. New York, NY: Sony Music. (2002).

Television and radio programs (episode in a series)

Citing an episode in a series

In-text citations

Include author name(s) and year:

(McEvoy & Whitmont, 2001)

List of references

Include information in the following order:

  • author names (producer, director, writer etc)
  • broadcast date
  • the title of the episode
  • format [between square brackets]
  • In
  • exedutive producer name
  • series name
  • place of production
  • production company.

McEvoy, P. (Producer) & Whitmont, D. (Reporter). (2001, August 13). The inside story [Television series episode]. In B. Belsham (Executive producer) Four Corners. Sydney, NSW: Australian Broadcasting Corporation.

Hubbard, M. (Writer), & McCarthy, B. (Director). (2007). The rural juror [Television series episode]. In T. Fey (Executive producer), 30 Rock. New York, NY: National Broadcasting Company.


Television and radio programs (series or single program)

Citing a single program

In-text citations

(Gilmour, Attenborough & Goodman, 1999)


Gilmour, D. (Executive producer) Attenborough, D (Writer) & Goodman, J. (Writer). (1999). Island of the vampire birds [Television documentary]. Sydney, NSW: Australian Broadcasting Corporation.


Citing a television series

In-text citations

Another television series that explored the dysfunctional family was The Sopranos (Chase & Van Patten, 1999)


Chase, D. (Writer), & Van Patten, T. (Director). (1999). The Sopranos [Television series]. New York, NY: Chase Films.

Youtube video

In-text citations

Cite by the author name and date:

(poyani, 2012)

To cite a direct quotation from an audio-visual source, include a timestamp in the in-text citation alongside the author and date indicating the point at which the quotation begins:

Darren Bloomfield emphasised the embassy's importance as "a front line for Aboriginal people to give their views to the government" (, 2007, 1:40).


Include information in the following order:

  • author. This is whoever posted the video. Use the screen name as it appears online.
  • date (year, month day).
  • title of video, in italics
  • format, between square brackets. [Video file].
  • Retrieved from URL (2007, July 24). Aboriginal tent embassy, Canberra [online video].  Retrieved from

poyani. (2012, December 29). George Carlin - Euphemisms [Video file]. Retrieved from


In-text citations

 (Adler-Gillies & Williams, 2016)

As with video, a timestamp can be used if you want to point readers to a particular section of the podcast.


Adler-Gillies, M. (Producer) & Williams, M. (Presenter). (2016, June 18). The great social experiment - public housing [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from…

Online art works and images

In-text citations

Include the author name and date assigned to the painting. The title of the work can also be mentioned in the text:

As an example of Australian painting during the inter-war years, The Laquer Room (Cossington Smith, 1936) demonstrates ...


Cossington Smith, G. (1936). The Laquer Room [Painting]. Retrieved from

Finding More Information

The material in this guide is based on:

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington DC: American Psychological Association.

The APA style website  (

The APA style blog (

It is not possible to include examples for every type of source in this guide. For further information and examples, consult the above sources, especially chapters 6 and 7 of the Publication manual. 


Back to top