This page outlines how to use APA referencing style to cite audiovisual media materials such as films, radio and television programs, music recordings, videos, podcasts and online images.

The format for these references follow a pattern based on whether the work stands alone (films, entire series, albums) or is part of a greater whole (Series episodes, podcast episodes, songs from an album).

Describe the format in square brackets - for example [Film], [Audio podcast episode] - in the title element of the citation.


In-text citations

Name the title in the text and put the primary contributors as authors in the parenthetical citation:

The motion picture The Godfather (Coppola & Ruddy, 1972) examines themes of good and evil ...


For a film:

  • list the primary contributors in the author position and identify their contributions between parentheses.
  • date, between parentheses.
  • title, in italics
  • format, between square brackets.
  • studio name.

Coppola, F. F. (Director), & Ruddy, A. S. (Producer). (1972). The Godfather [Film]. Paramount.

Music recording

In-text citations

For music recordings, the text citation consists of the songwriter(s) and date, along with the track number (or side and band, for vinyl records):

Lehrer (1990, side 2, track 3) wrote parody of the official songs in use by the various branches of the United States military. 

If the copyright date and recording date are different, use both dates in the text citation:

Carter and Cash's version of “It ain't me, babe” (Dylan, 1964/2002, track 3) was also considered ...


The bibliographic details are the same as those required for films, videos, DVDs, television and radio programs:

  • Writer name and initials
  • copyright year
  • Title of song
  • [Recorded by artist name if different from writer].
  • On title of album, in italics
  • [format of recording]
  • label
  • (date of recording if different from song copyright date).

Lehrer, T. (1959). It makes a fellow proud to be a soldier. On Evening Wasted with Tom Lehrer [vinyl record]. Warner Brothers.

Dylan, B. (1964). It ain't me, babe [Recorded by J. Cash and J. Carter]. On Orange Blossom Special [CD]. Sony Music. (2002).

TV Series

In-text citations

Another television series that explored the dysfunctional family was The Sopranos (Chase & Van Patten, 1999)


When the series run spans multiple years, separate the years with a dash. If the series is still being produced, replace the second year with the word 'present'.

Chase, D., Grey, B., Green, R., Burgess, M., & Weiner, M. (Executive Producers). (1999-2007). The Sopranos [TV series]. Chase Films.

Television and radio programs (episode in a series)

Citing an episode in a series

In-text citations

Include author name(s) and year:

(McEvoy & Whitmont, 2001)

List of references

Include information in the following order:

  • author names (producer, director, writer etc.)
  • broadcast date
  • the title of the episode
  • format [between square brackets]
  • In
  • executive producer name
  • series name
  • production company.

McEvoy, P. (Producer) & Whitmont, D. (Reporter). (2001, August 13). The inside story [TV series episode]. In B. Belsham (Executive producer) Four Corners. Australian Broadcasting Corporation.

Hubbard, M. (Writer), & McCarthy, B. (Director). (2007). The rural juror (Season 1, Episode 10) [TV series episode]. In T. Fey (Executive producer), 30 Rock. National Broadcasting Company.


Television and radio programs (single program)

In-text citations

(Gilmour, Attenborough & Goodman, 1999)


Gilmour, D. (Executive producer) Attenborough, D (Writer) & Goodman, J. (Writer). (1999). Island of the vampire birds [Television documentary]. Australian Broadcasting Corporation.

Youtube video

In-text citations

Cite by the author name and date:

(poyani, 2012)

To cite a direct quotation from an audio-visual source, include a timestamp in the in-text citation alongside the author and date indicating the point at which the quotation begins:

Darren Bloomfield emphasised the embassy's importance as "a front line for Aboriginal people to give their views to the government" (, 2007, 1:40).


Include information in the following order:

  • author. This is whoever posted the video. Use the screen name as it appears online.
  • date (year, month day).
  • title of video, in italics
  • format, between square brackets. [Video file].
  • Retrieved from URL (2007, July 24). Aboriginal tent embassy, Canberra [online video].  Retrieved from

poyani. (2012, December 29). George Carlin - Euphemisms [Video file]. Retrieved from


In-text citations

 (Adler-Gillies & Williams, 2016)

As with video, a timestamp can be used if you want to point readers to a particular section of the podcast.


Adler-Gillies, M. (Producer) & Williams, M. (Presenter). (2016, June 18). The great social experiment - public housing [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from…

Online art works and images

In-text citations

Include the author name and date assigned to the painting. The title of the work can also be mentioned in the text:

As an example of Australian painting during the inter-war years, The Laquer Room (Cossington Smith, 1936) demonstrates ...


Cossington Smith, G. (1936). The Laquer Room [Painting]. Retrieved from

Finding more information

The material in this guide is based on:

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). American Psychological Association.

The APA style website

The APA style blog

It is not possible to include examples for every type of source in this guide. For further information and examples, consult the above sources, especially chapters 8, 9 and 10 of the Publication manual.

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