Why do I need to provide a list?

Even though full bibliographic information is given in the footnote or endnote references, most lecturers will require you to provide a separate list of the works you have cited. It is easier to examine a complete listing of references which gives a clearer idea of your research.

How do I list the information?

A bibliographic entry requires the same information as a footnote entry, but with two main differences:

  1. The author’s surname is placed before their initial, as sources are listed in alphabetical order by author surname.
  2. Certain elements are separated with full stops instead of commas.



Reid, I Higher Education or Education for Hire? Language and Values in Australian Universities. CQU Press, Rockhampton, 1996.

Journal article

Doyle, M ‘Captain Mbaye Diagne’. Granta, vol. 48, August 1994, pp. 99-103.

Web page

Curthoys, N, 'Future directions for rhetoric – invention and ethos in public critique', in Australian Humanities Review, March-April 2001, viewed on 11 April 2001, http://www.lib.latrobe.edu.au/AHR/archive/Issue-April-2001/curthoys.html


An endnote referencing system is also known as the Citation-Sequence system. Numbers act as note identifiers in the text. A number is allocated to each source as it is referred to for the first time. A source retains the same number throughout the document and if the source is referred to again, the identifying number is repeated.

Modern scientific nomenclature really began with Linnaeus in botany,1 but other disciplines 2-3 were not many years behind in developing various systems for nomenclature and symbolisation. 4-7

The notes are collected at the end of the paper, rather than at the bottom of each page. Notes are organised just the way they sound; footnotes are collected at the foot (or the bottom) of the page, and endnotes are collected at the end of the paper. Footnotes and endnotes serve the same purpose. However, they are two different systems, so be consistent and use one or the other method.

A note on longer works: Thesis, books etc.

In long works with multiple sections and/or chapters, it is customary to restart numbering at the beginning of each chapter or major section break. If you are using endnotes, this would mean that your references would be collected in an easily identifiable way for the ease of your reader. If your work is separated into chapters, your endnote section would also be separated into chapters. For example, the third note in Chapter 7 would be indicated this way in the endnotes:

Chapter 7
3M C Egerton, The Australian Film Industry: An Overview, Dominion Press, Adelaide and Cinnamon Publishing, St. Lucia, Queensland, 1986, p. 99.


Style Manual for authors, editors and printers. 5th edn, rev. Snooks & Co., John Wiley & Sons, Australia, 2002.

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