The work you produce at university usually involves the important ideas, writings and discoveries of experts in your field of study. These contributions are always acknowledged by referencing, and there will be times when you introduce other people's views into your work and want to name them in the text. Naming other authors when you're introducing their views into your work can be done with quotations or paraphrases.
When to introduce quotes or paraphrases
- when you want to use an author as an authoritative voice
- to introduce an author's position you may wish to discuss
- to provide evidence for your own writing
- to make a clear distinction between the views of different authors
- to make a clear distinction between an author's views and your own
Use introductory phrases to tell the reader what the author thinks or does in their text. Consider using the following after you have given the author's name (and the year or notation):
- X states that . . .
- X claims that . . .
- X asserts that . . .
- X agrees that . . .
- X strongly argues . . .
- X comments that . . .
- X suggests that . . .
- X comments that . . .
- X says that . . .
- X observes that . . .
- X takes the view that . . .
- X contends that . . .
- X believes that . . .
- X proposes that . . .
- X concludes that . . .
- X maintains that . . .
- X concedes that . . .
- X notes that . . .
- According to X . . .
- As X states . . .
With Different Referencing Styles
Quotation with Harvard referencing:
Braitman (2012, p. 167) argues Freud was very fond of dogs and was "a believer in interspecies friendship".
Quotation with Footnote referencing:
Braitman asserts that Freud was very fond of dogs and was "a believer in interspecies friendship".1
Paraphrase with Harvard referencing:
Braitman (2012, p. 167) states that it was Freud's relationship with Jofi and Lun, his pet Chow, that convinced him that relationships between different species could exist.
Paraphrase with Footnote referencing:
As Braitman points out, it was Freud's relationship with Jofi and Lun, his pet Chow, that convinced him that relationships between different species could exist.1
Agreeing and disagreeing
You can indicate your agreement or disagreement with a statement by the introductory phrase you choose.
When you want to disagree with a statement
Harrison (1992, p. 566) mistakenly argues that Freud disliked animals.
When you want to show agreement with a statement
Greenleaf (2002, p. 146) correctly argues that it was his own pet dogs that stimulated Freud's interest in the human-animal bond.
As Greenleaf (2002, p. 146) points out, Freud developed an interest in "interspecies relationships" through experiences with his family pets.
A Neutral Approach
Harrison (1992) and Greenleaf (2002) both examine the relationship between Freud and his dogs.
Hirsh, EP 1996, Writing About Art, Longman, Melbourne.